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Report 2022

5.2. Consolidation

[Financial notes are presented in PLN thousand]

Consolidation principles

The consolidated financial statements of Bank Pekao S.A. Group include the financial data of Bank Pekao S.A. and its subsidiaries as at 31 December 2022. The financial statements of the subsidiaries are prepared at the same reporting date as those of the parent entity, using consistent accounting policies within the Group in all important aspects.

All intra-group balances and transactions, including unrealized gains, have been eliminated. Unrealized losses are also eliminated, unless there is an objective evidence of impairment, which should be recognized in the consolidated financial statements.

Investments in subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are all entities over which the Group has control. The Group controls an entity when the Group has power over an entity, is exposed to or has rights to variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect these returns through its power over the entity. The subsidiaries are consolidated from the date of obtaining control by the Group until the date when the control ceases.

The Group applies the acquisition method to account for business combinations. The consideration transferred for the acquisition of a subsidiary is the fair values of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the Group. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are measured at their fair values at the acquisition date. The Group measures any non-controlling interests in the acquire at fair value or at the present ownership instruments’ proportionate share in the recognized amounts of the acquire’s identifiable net assets.

Acquisition-related costs are expenses as incurred (in the income statement under ‘Administrative expenses’).

If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquirer remeasures its previously held equity interests in the acquiree at fair value at the acquisition date (date of obtaining control) and recognizes the resulting gain or loss in the income statement. The excess of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree and the acquisition-date fair value of any previous equity interest in the acquiree over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. If the total of consideration transferred, non-controlling interest recognized and previously held interest measured is less than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired in the case of a bargain purchase, the difference is recognized directly in the income statement.

The above policy does not apply to the business combinations under common control.

The changes in a parent entity’s ownership interest in a subsidiary that do not result in the parent entity losing control of the subsidiary are accounted for as equity transactions (i.e. transactions with owners of parent entity). The Group recognizes directly in equity any difference between the amount by which the non-controlling interests are adjusted and the fair value of the consideration paid or received, and attributes it to the owners of the parent entity.

When the Group ceases to have control over the subsidiary, any retained interest in that subsidiary is remeasured to its fair value at the date when control is lost, with the change in carrying amount recognized in the income statement.

Recognition of business combinations under common control at book value

Business combinations under common control are excluded from the scope of IFRS. As a consequence, following the recommendation included in IAS 8 ‘Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors’, in the absence of any specific guidance within IFRS, Bank Pekao S.A. has adopted the accounting policy consistently applied in all business combinations under common and recognizes those transactions using book value.

The acquirer recognizes the assets and liabilities of the acquired entity at their current book value adjusted exclusively for the purpose of aligning the accounting principles. Neither goodwill, nor badwill is recognized.

Any difference between the book value of the net assets acquired and the fair value of the consideration paid is recognized in the Group’s equity. In applying this book value method, the comparative periods are not restated.

If the transaction results in the acquisition of non-controlling interests, the acquisition of any non-controlling interest is accounted for separately.

There is no guidance in IFRS how to determine the percentage of non-controlling interests acquired from the perspective of a subsidiary. Accordingly Bank Pekao S.A. uses the same principles as the ultimate parent for estimating the value of non- controlling interests acquired.

Investments in associates

An associate is an entity over which the Group has significant influence, and that is neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture. The Group usually holds from 20% to 50% of the voting rights in an associate. The equity method is calculated using the financial statements of the associates. The balance sheet dates of the Group and its associates are the same.

On acquisition of the investment, any difference between the cost of the investment and the Group’s share in the net fair value of the investee’s identifiable assets and liabilities is accounted for as follows:

  • goodwill relating to an associate is included in the carrying amount of the investment,
  • any excess of the Group’s share in the net fair value of the investee’s identifiable assets and liabilities over the cost of the investment is included as income in the determination of the Group’s share in the associate’s profit or loss in the period in which the investment is acquired.

The Group recognizes the investments in associates applying the equity method. The investment in associates is initially recognized at cost and the carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognize the Group’s statement of financial position share in net assets of the associate after the date of acquisition, net of any impairment allowances.

The Group’s share of post-acquisition profit or loss is recognized in the income statement, and its share of post-acquisition movements in other comprehensive income is recognized in other comprehensive income with a corresponding adjustment to the carrying amount of the investment. Distributions received from an associate reduce the carrying amount of the investment.

If the Group’s share in the losses of an associate equals or exceeds the Group’s share in the associate, the Group ceases to recognize further losses, unless it assumed obligations or made a payment on behalf of the associate.

Unrealized profits or losses from transactions between the Group and associates are eliminated pro rata to the Group’s share in the associates.

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